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DNP fatfarm

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So.

2,4-dinitrophenol is probably the most effective weight-loss drug in existence. Basically, it short- circuits your mitochondria, so that they generate heat (and consume glucose) without doing any useful ATP production. I may have mentioned this otherwhere or elsewhen here on the HB - not that I have an obsession with quick-fix weight loss.

Properly-used, DNP can double or triple your basal metabolism. This means that you can sit in front of the TV 24/7 and lose more weight than you would by dieting and exercise.

Howevertheless, there are problems. Since you're generating extra heat, there's a limit to how much DNP you can take before you become dangerously hyperthermic. Consequently, DNP is not approved for general use, and therefore people buy it on the webternet (or, if they're clever, from a scientific supplier). This is not conducive to sensible dosing, and hence such people occasionally take themselves entirely out of the gene pool.

So, what do to?

Well, unspired by the linked idea for a voluntary prisoner- style diet regime, here is MaxCo.'s latest proposal. For a modestly exhorbitant fee, you get a room at MaxCo.'s fat-farm. It has TV, broadband, and access to some of the world's finest chefs who will cater for your every culinary whim. It also has an atmosphere somewhat enriched in oxygen. However, it lacks a bed.

Instead of the bed, there is a padded tub through which chilled water is circulated. This is where you will live, eat and sleep for the duration of your stay. You are also required, every 6 hours, to swallow a small thermometric pill which will constantly record and report your core temperature.

You are then dosed, at regular intervals, with several times the normal lethal limit of DNP. The temperature of water in your tub is constantly adjusted to keep your core temperature within normal limits. More or less by definition, you will feel comfortably warm however cold the water.

In the oxygen-enriched atmosphere and the coolth of your tub, your body can burn off calories at 4,5... maybe 8 times the normal rate. Even if you make full use of the in-house dining experience, the fat will simply melt away. A 48-hour stay should be roughly equivalent to a 7- day fast, shifting perhaps 7-10lb. Early check-out, before the DNP has been tailed off and allowed to clear your system, is strongly discouraged and may lead to, ah, complete check-out.

MaxwellBuchanan, Jun 08 2015

The linked idea Fat_20Cells_2c_20Door
[MaxwellBuchanan, Jun 08 2015]

Controlled Release DNP http://science.scie...ntent/347/6227/1253
[bs0u0155, Jan 26 2016]

[link]






       Is cataract surgery included in the fee?
Loris, Jun 08 2015
  

       //cataract surgery// Ah yes. Forgot about that one. DNP does appear to cause cataracts but, strangely, almost exclusively in women.   

       //Does this act on particular cell types ?// I'm not sure how uniformly DNP gets into difference cell types, but I'd guess it gets into most quite easily since it's small and fairly organicky. Once it's in, it should affect the mitochondria uniformly.   

       Think of each mitochondrion as a little generator fuelled by glucose. DNA just reduces the efficiency of the generator, by partially short- circuiting it. So, instead of maybe 15% of the glucose energy going into heat, maybe 50% goes into heat. The more active the cell, the harder the generator is working and, particularly with DNP, the more waste heat it generates.   

       Fat cells themselves don't do much, so making their mitochondria less efficient won't have much effect (i.e., if your generator only has to drive a single LED, making the generator inefficient will only waste a little bit of energy as heat). But muscle, brain or liver cells work hard, so making _their_ mitochondria inefficient leads to a lot of wasted energy. And that energy will come ultimately from fat stored (and released) by the fat cells.   

       // is there a similar chemical the body produces in quantities that vary between hi-metabolism and low-metabolism types// I think (hazy recall) that brown fat cells contain a protein which does something similar to their own mitochondria. This enables brown fat to run its mitochondria very wastefully, thereby generating heat. There's some research on inducing normal fat cells to become brown fat cells, to help weight loss. But I don't think (again, not sure) that this explains the difference between "naturally skinny"* people and "naturally fat" people. Equally, I don't think it explains differences in core temperature - some people just have their thermostats set a little different.   

       [Note to self: must resist the "temptation" to [Vernon]esquely put quote-marks around perfectly "ordinary" words and phrases.]
MaxwellBuchanan, Jun 08 2015
  

       You lucky, lucky person, you.   

       //Pretty sure it does for a large percentage from what I've read.// Possibly. But all the studies I've seen (OK, let's be frank here - all the TV science documentaries I've watched) have concluded that "natural skinniness" is down to things like eating habits, activity patterns and fidgeting. That said, there may be some variation in basal metabolisms.
MaxwellBuchanan, Jun 08 2015
  

       //put quote-marks around perfectly "ordinary" words and phrases//   

       sp. ' "perfectly ordinary" '
FlyingToaster, Jun 08 2015
  

       I reckon there would be an upper limit on the efficiency of your system using internal heating and skin cooling as you've described. At some point, the heat transfer rate would need to be high enough that you'd be causing frostbite in their extremities.   

       So you need a more efficient cooling mechanism. It turns out the body has a relatively efficient internal heat management system, which also doubles as the nutrient transfer (amongst other things) system - ie the bloodstream.   

       What you need to do is artificially cool the bloodstream. I propose hooking the victim (patient, whatever) up to a modified dialysis type machine with an inbuilt heat exchanger. Some experimentation may be required to determine what the lethal lower boundary is for blood temperature entering the body.   

       Eventually, after some experimentation, you might end up with a system whereby blood is extracted and re-introduced from multiple locations to maximise heat transfer and minimise local area damage.
Custardguts, Jun 08 2015
  

       I was expecting the idea to include USING the waste heat to some extent, such as generating electricity. (Yes, like in The Matrix.)
neutrinos_shadow, Jun 08 2015
  

       Ha! so, had this idea. Didn't write it down, so have a bun with a side of mild jealousy. Right, so, where were we...   

       //2,4-dinitrophenol is probably the most effective weight-loss drug in existence//   

       it's good, combine with sodium liothyronine for extra value.   

       //Basically, it short- circuits your mitochondria, so that they generate heat (and consume glucose) without doing any useful ATP production.//   

       Glucose, nah, mitochondria don't even know what that is... lactate, pyruvate, acetate, glutamate, and crucially here, the beta oxidation of fatty acids.   

       //It also has an atmosphere somewhat enriched in oxygen// Possibly a bad idea, the only true antioxidants are catalase and the electron transport chain, increasing the partial pressure of one while inhibiting the other... hmm   

       // Even if you make full use of the in-house dining experience, the fat will simply melt away//   

       Bodybuilders using dnp describe any carbs as being turned directly to heat.... this might be ill advised.   

       ////cataract surgery// Ah yes. Forgot about that one. DNP does appear to cause cataracts but, strangely, almost exclusively in women.//   

       They messed up the dosing, men and women weigh different amounts, they knew this even back then, but the split of tissues is off. Men have MANY more mitochondria, due to more muscle, brain and liver tissue.   

       //Fat cells themselves don't do much, so making their mitochondria less efficient won't have much effect (i.e., if your generator only has to drive a single LED, making the generator inefficient will only waste a little bit of energy as heat)//   

       This might be at the extreme end, but it doesn't matter. Mitochondria prioritize their membrane potential above all. They will happily CONSUME ATP to ensure they stay polarized. One depolarized mitochondria can consume HUGE amounts of substrate, this is, in fact the positive control at the end of respiration experiments.   

       //that brown fat cells contain a protein which does something similar to their own mitochondria. This enables brown fat to run its mitochondria very wastefully, thereby generating heat. There's some research on inducing normal fat cells to become brown fat cells, to help weight loss.//   

       Antarctic researchers upregulate UCPs in their brown fat, white fat becomes brown fat. No need for dnp, just lower people into ice baths, their shivering and so on can easily consume 10,000 per day, right up until they beg for dnp...
bs0u0155, Jun 08 2015
  

       //sodium liothyronine// Interesting.   

       //Glucose, nah// Oops.   

       //Mitochondria prioritize their membrane potential above all. They will happily CONSUME ATP to ensure they stay polarized.// Ah - even better then!   

       //No need for dnp, just lower people into ice baths// We ran that one past Sales and Marketing, and got a negative response. It seems that people just won't pay to be kept painfully cold.
MaxwellBuchanan, Jun 09 2015
  

       Get a celebrity or two on board, triple whatever asking price that you had in mind and you're off to the races.   

       [Maxwell Buchanan]'s "AMAZING" weight loss regime - DOCTORS HATE HIM! (nothing to do with the weight loss thing - they just do.)
AusCan531, Jun 09 2015
  

       // Better living through chemistry //   

       [Marked-for-tagline]
8th of 7, Jun 09 2015
  

       // Mejor vida con química //   

       [Marcado-para-eslogan] DELETED
popbottle, Jun 10 2015
  

       Having a damned good think about this, the liver is a bit of an issue. When the mitochondrial chemiosmotic gradient is partially uncoupled you create heat. The liver is close to cooking itself anyway... it's right on the edge, heat wise. Second, with all the tissues in the body screaming for glucose, as glycolysis fuel to supplement their failing mitochondrial ATP generation, the liver is stressed. It needs a good supply of ATP. Various lipid metabolism... needs liver mitochondria... we need a little specificity and targeting.
bs0u0155, Jun 11 2015
  

       //we need a little specificity and targeting//   

       Targeting schmargeting. If people can take dose X while going about their daily lives, they can take dose nX while being chilled, where n>>1.
MaxwellBuchanan, Jun 11 2015
  

       //one of those drugs where you inject a rat with a 100x overdose and it explodes//   

       I wish. MaxCo. has been trying to develop a rat- exploding drug for a long time, and results have been disappointing.   

       At one point, our head of research reported some very promising results. However, we eventually discovered that he'd been injecting the rats with nitroglycerine and then making them jump off a high table. We gave him an excellent reference when he applied for a position at BorgCo.   

       Still, on the plus side, his work (however flawed) did lead to the development of our anti-personell squirrel and active-denial vole.
MaxwellBuchanan, Jun 11 2015
  

       looks like DNP is back in the game <link>
bs0u0155, Jan 26 2016
  

       Yep.   

       Also, if you believe one research group, low levels of DNP throughout a mouse's life increase its lifespan, supposedly because it mimics some of the effects of caloric restriction. And gods know that what we really need are thin, long-lived mice.
MaxwellBuchanan, Jan 26 2016
  
      
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