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An outline for a possible fusion reactor.

Alchemy, Alchemy,they've all got it Alchemy
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An outline for a possible fusion reactor.

A catalysed D + D = He4 using the following steps.

I. Pb207 + D = Bi209.

II. Bi209 + D = Po211.

III. Po211 = Pb207 + a. (0.516 s 7450 keV) OR Po211 + D = At213

IV. At213 = Bi209 + a. (125 ns 9080 keV)

the first two steps being achieved by sonoluminescents fusion in liquid Lead Bismuth alloy.

Now in English for speaking people like what l is.

a sonoluminescents fusion reactor can be made using a vat of molten Lead Bismuth alloy,witch acts as; the confinement for Deuterium plasma, coolant for the fusion core, and radiation shealding in one small volume.

(1) Start with a vat of pure liquid Bismuth, witch will contain all of the radioactive process of the reactor. The Reason for starting with pure Bismuth rather then a Lead Bismuth alloy is, that Lead as three stable isotopes, and that Pb 206 would lead to the production of Po 210 witch as a half life of 138 days.

(2) Into this is placed the sonoluminescent generator shell. This is a sphere; with a large hole in the top and bottom, to allow the alloy to convect through it. scatted around its inner surface are ultrasound transducers, witch focus all of the ultrasonic energy on the centre of the sphere One of the difficulties that people working with sonoluminescents in the past have had is finding the correct frequency to drive the system at. I would suggest that one way of doing this would be; to have ultrasound pick-up the in side of the sonluminescent generator shell, to select the lowest frequency that it detects as fundamental frequency of the system and electronically producing the prime harmonics of this frequency. then using these harmonics, after suitable time delay, to drive transducers in the sonoluminescent generator. One advantage of this system is that the sonoluminescent bubble becomes its own oscillator and remains locked on fundamental frequency of the system even though that will be a frequency witch changes as the liquid metal gets hotter.

(3) A small bubbles of Deuterium is slowly passed up into the centre of the luminescent generator shell, where ultrasonic temporally holds it subjecting it to considerable heat and presser, until this is dislodged by deuterium coming up from below. The gas leaving the sonoluminescent generator shell is filtered and the Deuterium is recycled.

The reason why this may work when un catalysed Deuterium Deuterium sonoluminescent is doubtful is, that Lead and Bismuth both have large nuclei with lots of neutrons in them. Making Deuterium Lead collision far more likely than a Deuterium Deuterium collision.

I have been deliberately vague about how much metal because although the sonoluminescent fusion may may be achieved in a one-liner flask, in a reactor there is a need to conduct the heat of the reaction to the generators, at a sensible temperature. That means the coils of the boiler tubing immersed in the molten metal out side of the sonoluminescent generator shell.

boiling lead, anyone?

j paul, May 28 2011

General Fusion http://en.wikipedia...wiki/General_Fusion
uses molten metal and shockwaves (rather than sonoluminescence) [xaviergisz, May 28 2011]

rad-decay4 http://www.griffith...ces/radiation-decay
an interesting tool [j paul, Jun 05 2011]

[link]






       Welcome! I have no idea if this is any good, the others will let you know very soon, they know all about this sort of thing. Be prepared.
zeno, May 28 2011
  

       Might be a brilliant idea, but I couldn't get past the (lack of) spelling and grammar.
FlyingToaster, May 28 2011
  

       Following from what [zeno] said:   

       The thermal energy available in a liquid metal alloy is nowhere near high enough to endow D nucleii with sufficient translational energy for nuclear capture by Pb or Bi. And have you considered the capture cross-sections of these nucleii for D ? Look closely at the binding energy curve; the valley is in the Fe-Co-Ni region. Nucleon capture at the high end needs intense energy input as the resultant nucleus will be substantially less stable.   

       // Deuterium Lead collision far more likely than a Deuterium Deuterium collision //   

       No - back to capture cross sections. The kinetic energy required to allow a PB - D capture is massive; and unless the D and PB are in the form of plasma, all those electrons swilling around are more than likely to brake the D+ ion back to a D atom in very short order.   

       Welcome to the HalfBakery, [i_paul].
8th of 7, May 28 2011
  

       What FlyingToaster said. Run it through a spell checker (preferably a cold-fusion powered one) and replace the post with a proper one. Also, is there any reason to expect that sonoluminescence can be created in liquid bismuth? Water yes, but metal? Still, clever idea. Bun will follow when spelling is fixed.
sqeaketh the wheel, May 28 2011
  

       “The thermal energy available in a liquid metal alloy is nowhere near high enough” the energy driving the system is acoustical, not the thermal mass of metal Sorry I could have made that a bit clearer. Energy is put into system to turn Pb207 + D + D into Po211. Stop putting the energy in and the process stops. The Po211 decays releasing some x rays and a He nucleus with the energy that went in to making the Po, plus the energy released from turning 2 deuterium nuclei into one helium nucleus. This energy is then captured as thermal energy by the liquid mettle.   

       Yes it is possible that sonoluminescence can be created in any liquid. It is just bubble created and then collapsed by an intense, focused sphere of sound energy. The flashes of light from which itj takes its name, are caused by the adiabatic compression of the gas within the bubble as it is crushed. A temperature of about 6000K is needed to crate visible light, and it is believed by some that the temperature get high enough to cause D-D fusion. The light will not shine through the mettle.   

       As for comparing cross sections, I would not know where to start. So I will stick with the assumption that a large Bi nucleus is an easer target to hit then a smaller deuterium nucleus. Assuming it is possible to get enough energy into the system to make a deuterium nucleus fuse with anything.   

       This idea is clearly half baked in the sense that it needs someone to come along with a knob of garlic butter and give it at least ten minuets more cooking!
j paul, Jun 01 2011
  

       //ten minuets//
I move that we shoot [j_paul] now, and let him ask questions later.
lurch, Jun 01 2011
  

       All those in favour, lock and load.
8th of 7, Jun 01 2011
  

       Live is very short   

       And there's no time   

       For fusion and fightin my friend.
bungston, Jun 01 2011
  

       //Live is very short// But not as short as die.
mouseposture, Jun 02 2011
  

       //crotchety // etc. <Picky> Minuet, like waltz, is the name of a dance, and only secondarily of a musical movement or composition.
spidermother, Jun 02 2011
  

       Just a quick up data to add the link to rad-decay 4. the freewear program that has me convinced that, if Bismuth 209 captured a Hydrogen 2 [Deuterium] nucleus it would be converted in to Polonium 211, which would decay quickly to Lead 207 plus an Helium nucleus [alpha particle].
j paul, Jun 05 2011
  

       OK, [j_paul], I'll excuse your spelling if you'll excuse my ignorance.   

       1. Is sonoluminescence the process where you pinch a bubble with a sound wave hard enough to squeeze sub-atomic particles out of it? (These particles can be detected as electromagnetic radiation, hence "luminescence", right?)   

       2. Are you hoping to use these squeezed-out particles to turn parts of your lead-bismuth soup into astatine via polonium?   

       3. ... So that this astatine will then decay back to bismuth, releasing usable energy in excess of the energy required to keep the soup on the boil while singing to it?   

       I have no idea whether this would work; I'm just trying to picture it.   

       At this rate, the picture may well have room for witches, as well as whiches.
pertinax, Jun 06 2011
  

       He's shown sufficient mettle to tangle with molten metal.
neelandan, Jun 06 2011
  

       sonoluminescence is the process where a bubble is squeezed with a sound wave to cause very intense adiabatic heating of the gasses. It has been claimed that the temperature and the pressure at the end of the compression are high enough for there to be a momentary burst of fusion.
j paul, Jun 06 2011
  

       j paul, May 28 2011   

       I just came across your formula and nearly fell out of my chair. I wrote essentially the same formula in my personal note book in June 2003. I called it “Particle into a Box” which is the reverse of a Physical Chemistry problem called Particle in a Box that is used to predict the half-life of some radioactive element such as Thorium. While it is essentially the same equation, I believe that it should be used in stellarator or tokamaks devises. Aside from trying some experiments Deuterium saturated Palladium electrode with Bi contaminated, I did not pursue it farther. I would like to converse with you on the subject but Jutta of bakesperson@gmail.com has not been able to contact you. Please check with him to get my e-mail address. Michigan Analytical Chemist   

       For the record, [Jutta] is an esteemed she. I don't think [j paul] has been around for a while, but somebody here might well know where he is.   

       And welcome to the Halfbakery!
MaxwellBuchanan, Apr 26 2015
  

       I must get that molten salt thorium micro-reactor out of my fridge and bury it in the back garden where it can help prolong the hyacinths.
Ian Tindale, Apr 26 2015
  

       //The Reason for starting with pure Bismuth rather then a Lead Bismuth alloy is, that Lead as three stable isotopes, and that Pb 206 would lead to the production of Po 210 witch as a half life of 138 days.//   

       Ah, but Po210 is incredibly valuable as a toxin, as Mr Litvinenko, and perhaps Mr Arafat could well attest (perhaps via ouija board). I'm sure the KGB, and Mossad would be quite interested in secuirity of supply. It has secondary uses as well I suppose.   

       So Anyway, avoiding the issue of whether this would work, the next question is would it be useful? You start with a family of capture or fusion reactions, all of which would be strongly if not extremely endothermic. The scond half of the cycle, the subsequent decays, arre moderately exothermic. So, what does the energy balance look like? How much energy per reaction will it take to get deuterium to bind to those heavy nucleii? In other words, could this possibly be energy-positive, even just from a reactants-products comparison?   

       Also, hey [xaviergisz] - those general fusion guys seem big on hype and small on published results. Is there any compelling evidence that they're on track to achieve anything (other than spruiking for crowdsourced funding)?
Custardguts, Apr 27 2015
  

       I haven't heard anything from General Fusion for a while. Maybe they're too busy achieving stuff to have time with publicity. Anyway, I think they are entitled to a bit of time to make it work seeing as: a) they're using private funding, and b) they are trying to do something scientists/engineers have been unable to do for the last fifty years with billions of (tax-payer) dollars.
xaviergisz, Apr 27 2015
  

       Sound-induced bubble fusion is still controversial, even with respect to trying to get two deuteriums to merge together. Here you want to overcome 82 and 82 times the mutual repulsion...(82 protons in lead, and 83 in bismuth).
Vernon, Apr 27 2015
  

       Anything that advances our knowledge of how to leak an atom of it's energy for the betterment of mankind has to bring on a new fundumental age.
wjt, Apr 27 2015
  

       A quick search indicates that when you start bombarding bismuth and lead isotopes with particles they fiss instead of fuse. Lots of "lead fission". Lots of "bismuth fission".
LimpNotes, Apr 27 2015
  

       //Here you want to overcome 82 and 82 times the mutual repulsion...(82 protons in lead, and 83 in bismuth).//   

       I think the argument is that it's easier to fuse a heavy nucleus with a light one than two light nuclei. I'm not sure of the theoretical basis of this argument.
MaxwellBuchanan, Apr 27 2015
  

       After further reading, it appears that elements heavier than iron can not be formed through fusion (except: Nickel(56)) but are formed through neutron capture. Neutron capture has a slow and fast process. The slow process will create elements up to Bismuth(209) and the theoretical fast process creates heavier elements when a star goes supernova. That said, extremely heavy elements have been formed in the laboratory by bombarding one heavy element with another. Plutonium bombarded by neon ions to form rutherfordium for example.
LimpNotes, Apr 27 2015
  

       I drew an outline for a possible fusion reactor once. I think it was circular, and involved connecting dots together.
RayfordSteele, Apr 27 2015
  
      
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