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Cryopreserve at high pressure, and avoid fracturing of tissue (?)
  (+5, -1)
(+5, -1)
  [vote for,

"The form of ice that is created when water is cooled at atmospheric pressure, 'Ice I',has a higher unit volume than the liquid water. As a result, increasing the pressure actually causes ice to melt rather then water to solidify. That is, up to a pressure of about 2000 atm. Above this pressure, other, more dense forms of solid water (Ice II, Ice III, Ice V, Ice VI, and Ice VII) can form." (link1)

These ice forms are denser than water. (link2) So, perhaps they would not damage the cells like ordinary ice does.

For instance, Ice III is formed by cooling water down to 250 K at 300 MPa [Wikipedia:Ice III]. The pressure would occur naturally in the sea, 30 kilometers below the sea level.

"Ice III ... has a density of 1.16 g cm-3 (at 350 MPa where water density = 1.13 g cm-3)." (link about Ice III)
It's a contraction by only 2.65%, versus the usual expansion by 8.33% upon freezing.

Inyuki, Sep 06 2012

Freezing Water at 100 degrees C http://www.newton.d...hem00/chem00298.htm
[Inyuki, Sep 06 2012]

Ice phases http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/ice.html
[Inyuki, Sep 06 2012]

File:Density of ice and water (en).svg http://upload.wikim...iagram_of_water.svg
[Inyuki, Sep 06 2012]

Preezing. Preezing
[2 fries shy of a happy meal, Sep 06 2012]

Nitrogen boiling point at 3000 bars http://www.wolframa...+point+at+3000+bars
=> cooling with nitrogen would be impossible at this pressure. [Inyuki, Sep 06 2012]

Density Changes http://www.lsbu.ac....ater/phase.html#den
[Inyuki, Sep 06 2012]

Ice III http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/ice_iii.html
[Inyuki, Sep 06 2012]

high pressure microscope http://www.ncbi.nlm...gov/pubmed/15529757
Microscopy under pressures up to 300 MPa. [Inyuki, Sep 06 2012]

High pressure freezing and thawing of foods: a review http://www.scienced...i/S0140700701000305
It seems, these techniques had been used in recent 20 years, but for a different purpose. Cryogenecists really didn't think of it?.. [Inyuki, Sep 06 2012]

Suspended Animation Suspended_20Animation
I posted this Idea back in 2001 [Vernon, Sep 06 2012]

High Pressure Cryonics http://www.benbest....onics/pressure.html
"A German cryonicist, who has training in physical chemistry, has suggested that high pressure may be the best means of eliminating freezing damage in cryonics." [ Halfbaked? ] [Inyuki, Sep 07 2012]

Magnetic Resonance Freezing (for foods) http://onlinelibrar...4302325.ch5/summary
"STEP1: Food undergoes continuous magnetic wave vibrations, which impede crystallisation. STEP2: After a suitable product-specific period of time the magnetic fields are abruptly removed, with uniform flash freezing of the entire food volume, avoiding cracks and related damages." [Inyuki, Sep 07 2012]

The Ice I - line...- just go down the slope.. https://en.wikipedi...I_phase_diagram.svg
[Inyuki, Oct 29 2018]

Instant freeze water https://youtu.be/RMzio5sLN48
Shows very cold water freezing quickly when bumped or opened (lowering pressure) [caspian, Oct 30 2018]

High pressure freezing and thawing http://www.ref-wiki...ng-and-thawing.html
Found a description of pressure shift freezing, it's similar to what I was thinking of [caspian, Oct 30 2018]

Ultra-fast freezing at high pressure https://www.leica-m...EAAYASAAEgKg8vD_BwE
[MaxwellBuchanan, Oct 30 2018]

Water phase diagram says we could stay solid at high temperatures... https://en.wikipedi...iagram_of_water.svg
"Why can't you raise the pressure as you bleed off heat?" [Voice] -- cause at some point that pressure and temperature may lead to unwanted chemical changes in the body... [Inyuki, Sep 01 2019]


       I'm not a biologist, but it's possible that subjecting human tissue to pressures above 2000atm might damage it in other ways.
hippo, Sep 06 2012

       Perhaps there is no conclusive answer to this question without experimentation... unless there is something inside the cells, like organelles, that would be irrecoverably disrupted by the crystallization anyway. However, there was some success in preserving small organs even under atmospheric pressure. So, I guess it's an open question...
Inyuki, Sep 06 2012

       [8th of 7]'s anno to my version, [link] of this idea;   

       //Bad science.   

       The problem is the size of a tomato (or rather its surface area to volume ratio). Fruit such as raspberrries can be frozen effectively using liquid Nitrogen; but with larger items, the outside freezes before the inside (in extreme cold) and you get bursting of the cell walls. Chilling the item to + 0.1 C, then drenching in LN2, sort-of works but is far from perfect - because on defrosting, the outside melts first .... barometric pressure has almost no effect on the thermodynamics.   

       For cryopreservation of vegetable material like soft fruit, rapid cooling resulting in minimal ice crystal sizes is the Holy Grail. The larger the item, the harder it is to cool the whole mass very fast.//   

       [2 fries shy of a happy meal], Wow, and you thought of something very similar in 2009. [+ for you]   

       I guess the bursting cell walls occur because of the different densities of unfrozen and frozen cells. So, the question boils down to: whether water density increase is better than its decrease.   

       (Ideally, we would want to find such pressure, where density of frozen water coincides with the density of unfrozen water, but according to the diagrams in link [Density Changes], there is no such point.)
Inyuki, Sep 06 2012

       Pretty sure that cryogenecists have thought about adjusting even as radical a variable as pressure to change ice phases during freezing for cryonics.
rcarty, Sep 06 2012

       Perhaps it is not practical to achieve that pressures at this time, however, I'm convinced that in the future we will not rely so much on the temperature, but on pressure.   

       Pressure propagates at the speed of sound, but temperature transduces slowly. According to the water phase diagram, apply pressure of 1250 MPa to human body of natural temperature of 36.8'C (98.24'F), and it will uniformly convert into ice.
Inyuki, Sep 06 2012

       /30 kilometers below the sea level/ where is this?   

       /Pretty sure that cryogenecists have thought/ nah. theys ignorant.   

       /apply pressure of 1250 MPa to human body of natural temperature of 36.8'C (98.24'F), and it will uniformly convert into ice./ what? more pressure raises freezing point of water? I thought it was the other way around - increased pressure makes water volume increase on freezing more difficult, and so high pressure lowers freezing point.
bungston, Sep 06 2012

       //apply pressure of 1250 MPa to human body of natural temperature of 36.8'C (98.24'F), and it will uniformly convert into ice.//   

       That is a very, very elegant idea.
MaxwellBuchanan, Sep 06 2012

       Would the body have to be stored under that pressure, or would it shatter if it was removed to be placed into permanent cold storage?
rcarty, Sep 06 2012

       There's only one way to find out for certain …   

       Any volunteers?
8th of 7, Sep 06 2012

       //apply pressure of 1250 MPa to human body of natural temperature of 36.8'C (98.24'F), and it will uniformly convert into ice.//   

       Interesting thought, but after doing some calculations, I don't think it would actually work.   

       I assume you're talking about converting to ice VI. There will be heating during the phase change. I assume if the temperature gets too hot (scalding temperature maybe) it could break chemical bonds that we don't want to be broken. The temperature ought to increase uniformly assuming the pressure increase is reasonably rapid, so if we can pre-cool the subject, use pressure to rapidly and uniformly solidify the water, then cool the ice for storage, that seems reasonable.   

       Unfortunately the triple points chart from the "Density Changes" link appears to indicate that the temperature change would be much too large. I think these charts indicate that the phase change between liquid and ice VI can happen anywhere between 0.16C and 81.85C depending on the pressure. I'm not sure what deltaH and deltaS are exactly, but based on the units, it looks like 1000*deltaH/deltaS would tell me roughly how much the temperature would change if the phase change happens because of pressure alone. For the liquid to ice VI transition, 1000*deltaH/deltaS is between 273K and 353K. So even if you pre-cooled your subject to 0.16C, using pressure increase to freeze it would make the temperature too high for ice VI to exist, and much too hot to avoid other damage. If you increase the pressure and reduce the temperature all the way to -21.9C, then transition from water through ice III, V, VI, and VII, your final temperature would be slightly lower but the dH and dS look similar for these transitions as well, so I suspect you'll still be way over 200C.
scad mientist, Sep 06 2012

       // Assembly is the reverse of disassembly //   


       Oh, well, good, that's that part of the problem solved, then …
8th of 7, Sep 06 2012

       Another question is whether high-temperature ices will preserve biology in the same way that low temperatures do.   

       On the one hand, they should: they would immobilize everything and prevent bacteria and proteases and whatnot from screwing up your cells.   

       On the other hand, everything's still warm, so maybe chemistry would just carry on and you'd just rust to death.
MaxwellBuchanan, Sep 06 2012

       // if there are disolved gases //   

       Well, if there's no oxygen, nitrogen or CO2 then the whole preservation thing is moot, 'cos you'd be dead.
8th of 7, Sep 06 2012

       "Ice III ... has a density of 1.16 g cm-3 (at 350 MPa where water density = 1.13 g cm-3)." (link about Ice III)
It's a contraction by only 2.65%, versus the usual expansion by 8.33% upon freezing.

       [scad mientist], since according to your calculation, transition to Ice VI because of pressure alone seem impracticable, the transition from liquid to Ice III occuring not only because of pressure, but from combination of temperature and pressure, as suggested in the original idea, seems to be the second best option.   

       Seems like this idea had been around for 20 years, in the field of food preservation (see link: High pressure freezing and thawing of foods: a review, 2002.)
Inyuki, Sep 06 2012

       [Vernon], [+]. I really like your lengthy depiction. I wish it really worked as you depicted.
Inyuki, Sep 07 2012

       Why can't you raise the pressure as you bleed off heat?
Voice, Sep 07 2012

       The link on high-pressure freezing of food says " this process permits the significant preservation of the microstructure of biological substances" - which is very interesting.   

MaxwellBuchanan, Sep 07 2012

       Suggest substituting water with whiskey. Might not work but what a way to go?
Lesser Spotted Kiwi, Sep 08 2012

       //what a way to go//   

       Alcohol's euphoria mechanism only makes use of the existing dopamine in the user's brain. Once that's gone you don't get more until your brain naturally makes it and production is not stimulated. So you can only be a happy drunk for a short time and the pain of death will far outweigh that joy.
Voice, Sep 08 2012

       How interchangeable are other words with "alcohol".
rcarty, Sep 08 2012

       i dinged you because the coma cabana is better. and--the problem with cryo-preservation is cooling the body THOUGH the temperatures you are not referring to , in order to get to the temperatures you are referring to .   

       despite the enormous research about various states of ice, which are enteratining, ---we still really don't know squat about how the cooling and freezing process goes on in cells.   

       given the recent discoveries of our near relatives in madagascar--lemurs----a few species of which can actually hibernate underground for months in a very low metabolic state----i think those lemurs probably provide the most realistic shot at engineering a bio- technology allowing human beings to enter stasis-or hibernation of one sort of the other.   

       given the vast quantities of research into biological specimens that can survive partial and full freezing-- -and their sophisticated protein and metabolic processes for achieving this accomplishement---it stands to reason the path forward to cryo preservation has less to do with precisely what temperature and pressure the human being is subject to during the preservation state---so much as the metabolic and protein specific processes that safely allow the human to transition from warm high metabolic state ( awake and asleep ) ---into cold--no metabolic state-----and then back again.   

       it is the TRANSITIONS that are where cryopreservation is made possible. and these transitions are not dependent so much on temperature, as the bodies reaction to temperature.   

       i don't think flash freezing a human being would change the reaction to result in preservation. but then, you'd have to do that to find out wouldn't you?! i think you can wait for experiments like that to happen during the next world war. some crazy mad doctors are bound to try it.
teslaberry, Mar 06 2014

       //we still really don't know squat about how the cooling and freezing process goes on in cells//   

       It depends on which "we" you're referring to, [Slab].   

       Mouse embryos are routinely frozen (not for sale as canapes, but for later thawing and implantation). Other small organisms can likewise be frozen and thawed, as can small tissue blocks and organs.   

       As far as anyone has been able to tell, the success of freezing depends chiefly on the rate of cooling.
MaxwellBuchanan, Mar 06 2014

       Regarding the heating, take a look at the Ice I - line (link). It's smooth -- it means, all we need to do, is to gradually increase the pressure, as we gradually decrease the temperature, to enter the Ice III. We can stay in the Ice III, up to temperature of 240 K, not below. I wonder, would that be enough to stop deterioration?
Inyuki, Oct 29 2018

       If you raised the pressure to allow cooling the body well below 0, then dropped the pressure quickly, it might freeze fast enough. The freezing would probably release enough heat to prevent fully freezing, but it might be enough that everything's immobilised and large ice crystals can't form while you cool further to complete the freezing.   

       There could be negative effects from the pressure drop though.   

       You could do a similar thing when converting to ice III. Get it almost to freezing, then suddenly raise the pressure, raising the freezing temperature. The freezing would generate heat, raising the tissue temperature to the new freezing point, so it would only partly freeze instantly, but it may be enough to stop large ice crystals forming, and buy you time to complete the freezing by cooling.   

       Also, I found a term online, "high pressure shift freezing" but I can't find anything about it other than academic articles.
caspian, Oct 30 2018

       I found this link from Leica <link> which talks about freezing samples up to a few mm in diameter at moderately high pressure (2100 bar) to preserve microstructure for microscopy. I wonder if anyone has tried putting a usually- non- freezable insect through one of these to see if it survives?
MaxwellBuchanan, Oct 30 2018

       Cats are an insect, aren't they ... ?
8th of 7, Oct 30 2018

       Yes, but only after you apply the 2100 bar.
MaxwellBuchanan, Oct 30 2018

       Lock and load ...
8th of 7, Oct 30 2018

       If you can revive a bee with a novel pressure regime kind of ice, then you can store an entire hive mind and revive it in the future.
beanangel, Oct 30 2018


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