In this post I will answer only the above question.

(There are other questions in your posts 1 & 3 and ofcourse post 8 above, which I could answer in separate posts.

Since queries have been multiple, I will do my best to keep my answer in this post specific to the query and as brief as possible. If my answer is too brief, let me know, and I will be happy to elaborate.

To understand why a Low Powered amplifier ( say 30 Watts per channel) can damage a speaker rated at a higher power (say 100 Watts per channel), we need to appreciate the Following 3 Key concepts:

**1. THE LOUDSPEAKER**
Loudspeakers typically consists of multiple drivers, each driver is designed to optimally work within a relatively narrow range of frequencies. As an example, a 3 way speaker will have:

- One or more LF (Low Frequency) Drivers also called Woofers
- One or more Mid Frequency Range Drivers (Earlier called Squawkers) or just Mid Range Drivers
- One or more HF (High Frequency) Drivers, also called tweeters.

Most of the Power (50% to 70%) in music is contained in the Low Frequencies. Woofers in a loudspeaker are therefore designed to handle most of the Loudspeaker power. So the Woofer drivers in a 100 Watt rated Loudspeaker will usually be able to handle 80 Watts or More.

About 20% to 30% of music power is contained in the midrange. Hence, the midrange drivers in a 100 Watt rated Loudspeaker will usually be able to handle 30 Watts or More.

*Only 10% to 20% of music power is contained in the High Frequencies. Hence, the Tweeters a 100 Watt rated Loudspeaker will usually be able to handle around 10 Watts. *Keep in mind that a tweeter diaphram needs to make small and fast movements, so its best to keep its dimensions and mass of the moving parts, small. This also implies lower power handling capacity for Tweeters.

**2. THE AMPLIFIER**
The "Rated Power" of an amplifier is the power it can deliver with minimal (specified as 0.1% or whatever) distortion.

The amplifier can usually deliver (20% to 30%) higher power but with a lot of (30%) distortion.

*So a 80 Watts per channel amplifier, will typically deliver even 100 Watts of power with 30% distortion.*

3. DISTORTION
Just as all matter is composed out of atoms, similarly, a mathematician called Fourier proved (Fourier's Theorem) that all sounds can basically be considered to comprise of Sine Wave frequencies. So sine waves are the basic building blocks of all Musical notes / sounds. These sine wave consist of a "Fundamental" or the basic frequency + Harmonics (or musical over tones)

When a note is distorted (say, by the amplifier, because it has run out of power), the distorted note contains Far more Harmonics ( ie higher frequencies) than the original more.

Hence when a 300 Hz Tone (normally handled by the robust Woofer) is Distorted, the distorted note will have new frequencies at all Multiples of 300 Hz ... these will include:

3,000 Hz (Delivered to the Midrange)

6,000 Hz & 12,000 Hz delivered to the delicate Tweeter.

Lets take some illustrative figures:

An 80 Watt Amplifier, driven hard into distortion at a Party ... Putting out 100 Watts of Highly distorted (30% distortion) sound power.

So 30% of 100 Watts ie about 30 Watts will be Harmonics that are delivered (un-necessarily) to the Midrange or Tweeter!

Suddenly, the

**Distorted music has Far more Mid Freq & High Freq content that the Mid Range Driver and Tweeter can handle. **

Tweeters are usually the 1st to blow in a damaged speaker, and the above (hopefully

) illustrates why a low powered amp can destroy Higher power rated speakers.